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Line 0. Line 1. Austrrlla's ravourltc Comediennes. Alan Light. Moya Beaver. Joan Robbins. Edna Luscombe, Gerald McErlrin. Bolibv Horsfall. Ray Hartley.
R CENT. Anita Marten, Billy Samuels. Gardner and Kane. SMur- I. Bool: six days ahead. Wjirard and Railway al conclusion of evening ihovv.
North Sydney. Rldnc Street Tram and Bus Stop. It Is witty and dramatic, thoughtful and embroiling Its theme Is one ol great. Paling's, and at Theatre XB Prleis.
In April, at 8 15 p. Bainton, D. Dunelm , F. APRIL nth. APRIL 10th. Ihcatre Location:. Line 2. Hitlldln- ücuee bl. I iib li oi 1'ullim s All Instruments.
Iodaes Panics Societies Cirnlvils Only the. Line 3. Line 4. W11 H lHfc. All pilces. No extra to bunk. William Holden, and.
Parade-Aimy salvage eorp. Indiidins Hugh Heiberl. Ann Miller star ni. Kcnnv Baker I'rnncei Langford. Mary Boland. A Republic. Both Ulms.
On Stage. Popcve ". Sessions ni B Reserves MA De Mine's Gi cat Adventure Drama. Braulius, Bishop of Zaragoza, lives as the editor of his master Isidore's posthumous writings, and as the author of a hymn to that national saint, Millan.
Nor should we omit the names of St. Eugenius, a realist versifier of the day, and of St. Valerius, who had all the poetic gifts save the accomplishment of verse.
Naturalised foreigners, like the Hungarian St. Martin of Dumi, Archbishop of Braga, lent lustre to Spain at home. Spaniards, like Claude, Bishop of Turin, and like Prudentius Galindus, Bishop of Troyes, carried the national fame abroad : the first in writings which prove the permanence of Seneca's tradition, the second in polemics against the pantheists.
Doubtless in Spain, as elsewhere, much curious learning and inso- lent ignorance throve jowl by jowl. Like enough, some Spanish St. Ouen wrote down Homer, Menander, and Virgil as three plain blackguards ; like enough, the Spanish biographer of some local St Bavo confounded Tityrus with Virgil, and declared that Pisistratus' Athenian contemporaries spoke habitually in Latin.
The conceit of ignorance is a thing eternal. Withal, from the age of Prudentius onward, literature was sustained in one or othSr shape.
For a century after Tarik's landing there a pause, unbroken save for the Chronicle of the anony- mous Cordoban, too rashly identified as Isidore Pacensis.
C6rdoba's fame, as the world's fine flower. Thomas of Aquin. A stinging epigram summarises his achievement by saying that he philosophised the Talmud and talmudised philosophy.
In his Vad ha-Hazakah The Strong Hand Maimonides seeks to purge the Talmud of its pilpulim or casuistic commentaries, and to make the book a sufficient guide for practical life rather than to leave it a dust-heap for intellectual scavengers.
Hence he tends to a rational- istic interpretation of Scriptural records. This reaction was headed by apother , Spaniard, the C atalan m vstic.
If their own countrymen failed to understand these poets, it would be surprisirlg had their stilted artifice filtered into Castilian. It is un- scientific, and almost unreasonable, to assume that what baffles the greatest Arabists of to-day was plain to a wan- dering mummer a thousand, or even six hundred, years ago.
There is, however, a widespread belief that the metrical form of the Castilian romance a simple lyrico- narrative poem in octosyllabic assonants derives from Arabic models.
This theory is as untenable as that which attributed Provencal rhythms to Arab singers. No less erroneous is the idea that the entire assonantic system is an Arab invention.
To father Spanish romances and Provencal trobas upon them is a mere freak of fancy. The tacit basis of this theory is that the Span- iards took a rare interest in the intellectual side of Arab life; but the assumption is not justified by evidence.
Save in a casual passage, as that in the CrSnica General on the capture of Valencia, the Castilian historians steadily ignore their Arab rivals.
On the other hand, there is a class of romances fronterizos border ballads , such as that on the loss of Alhama, which is based on Arabic legends ; and at least one such ballad, that of Abenamar, may be the work of a Spanish-speaking Moor.
But these are isolated cases, are exceptional solely as regards the source of the subject, and nowise differ in form from the two thousand other ballads of the Roman-- ceros.
To find a case of real imitation we must pass to the fifteenth century, when that learned lyrist, the Marques de Santillana, deliberately experiments in the measures of an Arab zajaly a performance matched by a surviving fragment due to an anonymous poet in the Cancionero de Linares.
These are metrical audacities, resembling the revival of French ballades and rondeatix by artificers like Mr. Dobson, Mr.
Gosse, and Mr. Henley in our own day. This is not to say that Arabic popular poetry had no influence on such popular Spanish verse as the coplaSy of which some are appa- rently but translations of Arabic songs.
To this extent, in common with the rest of Europe, Spain owes the Arabs a debt which her picaresque novels and comedies have more than paid ; but here again the Arab acts as a mere middleman, taking the story of Kalilah and Dimna from the Sanskrit through the Pehlevi version, and then passing it by way of Spain to the rest of the Continent.
Nor should it be over- looked that Spaniards, disguised as Arabs, shared in the work of interpretation. Patriots would per- suade you that the Arabs brought nothing to the stock of general culture, and the more thoroughgoing insist that the Spaniards lent more than they borrowed.
But the point may be pressed too far. Apart from the evidence of Paulus Alvarus Cor- yflubiensis, St. Nor can it be pleaded that this zeal was invariably due to official pressure : on the contrary, a caliph went the length of forbidding Spanish Jews and Christians to learn Arabic.
Yet, even so, the rude Latin of the unconquered north remained well-nigh intact. Save in isolated centres, it was spoken by countless Christians and by the Spaniards who had escaped to the African province of Tingitana.
Vast deduction must be made from the jeremiads of Paulus Alvarus Cordubiensis. Arabs tended more and more to ape the dress, the arms, the customs of the Spaniards ; and the Castilian-speaking Arab — the moro latinado — multiplied prodigiously.
When Archbishop Raimundo founded his College of Translators at Toledo, where Dominicus Gundisalvi collaborated with the convert Abraham ben David Johannes Hispalensis , it might have seemed that the preservation of Arabic and Hebrew was secure.
There and then, there could not have occurred such a blunder as that immortal one of the Capuchin, Henricus Seynensis, who lives eternal by mis- taking the Talmud — " Rabbi Talmud " — for a man.
But no Arab work endures. And as with Arab philosophy in Spain, so with the Arabic language : its soul was required of it.
Hebrew, indeed, was not forgotten ; and for Arabic,, a revival might be expected during the Crusades. Nearly two centuries before in a council under Pope Clement V.
But the peculiarity of aljamia is that it begot a literature of its own, though, naturally enough, a literature modelled on the Spanish.
Its best production is the Poema de Yusuf; and it may be noted that this, like its much later fellow. So also the Aragonese Morisco, Muhammad Rabadin, writes his cyclic poem in Spanish octosyllabics ; and in his successors there are hendecasyllabics mani- festly imitated from a characteristic Galician measure de gaita gallegd.
The subjects of the textos aljamiados are frankly conveyed from Western sources : the Com- pilation of Alexander y an orientalised version of the French ; the History of the Loves of Paris and Viana, a translation from the Provencal ; and the Maid of Area- yonay based on the Spanish poem Apolonio.
In the Cancionero de Baena appears Mahomat-el-Xartosse, with- out his turban, as a full-fledged Spanish poet ; and the old tradition of servility is continued by an anonymous refugee in Tunis, who shows himself an authority on the plays and the lyric verse of Lope de Vega.
It is therefore erroneous to suppose that the northern Spaniards on their southward march fell in with nume- rous kinsmen, of wider culture and of a higher civilisa- tion, whose everyday speech was unintelligible to them, and who prayed to Christ in the tongue of Muhammad.
Such cases may have occurred, but as the rarest excep- tions. Not less unfounded is the theory that Castilian is a fusion of southern academic Arabic with barbarous northern Latin.
Lastly, it must be borne in mind that the variety of Romance which finally prevailed in Spain was not the speech of the northern highlanders, but that of the MuzArabes of the south and the centre.
In the eighth century this Basque invasion was avenged. The Spaniards, concentrating in the ;! Deriving from the langtic d'ocy Catalan divides into pld Catald and Lemosl — the common speech and the literary tongue.
Vidal de Besalu calls his own Provengal language limosina or lemoziy and the name, taken from his popular treatise Dreita Maneira de TrobaVy was at first limited to literary Provencal ; but endless confusion arises from the fact that when Catalans took to composing, their poems were likewise said to be written in lengua lemosina.
Galician, now little more than a simple dialect, is artifici- ally kept alive by the efforts of patriotic minor poets; but its literary influence is extinct, and the distinguished figures of the province, as Dona Emilia Pardo Bazdn, naturally seek a larger audience by writing in Castilian.
What befell in Italy and France befell in Spain. Partly through political causes, partly by force of superior culture, the language of a single centre ousted its rivals.
As France takes its speech from Paris and the lie de France, as Florence domi- nates Italy, so Castile d ictates her language to all the Spains.
The dominant type, then, of Spanish is the Castilian, which, as the most potent form, has outlived its brethren, and, with trifling variations, now extends, not only over Spain, but as far west as Lima and Val- paraiso, and as far east as the Philippine Islands : in effect, "from China to Peru.
The first allusion to any distinct variety of Romance is found in the life of a certain St. Mummolin who was Bishop of Noyen, succeeding St.
Eloi in A reference to the Spanish type of Romance is found as far back as ; but the authenticity of the docu- ment is very doubtful.
The breaking-up of Latin in Spain is certainly observable in Bishop Odoor's will under the date of The celebrated Strasburg Oaths, the oldest of Romance instruments, belong to the year ; and, in an edict of , Charles the Bald mentions, as a thing apart, "the customary language" — usitato vocabulo — of the Spaniards.
There is, however, no exist- ing Spanish manuscript so ancient, nor is there any monument as old, as the Italian Carta di Capua The Charter called the Fuero de Avilh of which is in bable or Asturian, not Castilian , has long passed for the oldest example of Spanish, on the joint and several authority of Gonzdlez Llanos, Ticknor,.
These intricate questions of authority and ascription may well be left unsettled, for legal documents are but the dry bones of letters. These, probably, are the jetsam of a cargo of literature which has foundered.
Doubtless there were other older, shorter songs or cantares on the Cid's prowess ; there unquestionably were songs upon Bernaldo de Carpio and upon the Infantes de Lara which are rudely preserved in asso- nantic prose passages of the CrSnica General.
At most this is a pious opinion. But in any case the cantilena theory is idle ; for, since no cantilenas exist, no evidence is — or can be — forthcoming to eke out an attractive but unconvincing thesis.
In default of testi- mony and of intrinsic probability, the theory depends solely on bold assertion, and it suffices to say that the cantilena hypothesis is now abandoned by all save a knot of fanatical partisans.
The exploits of the battle-field would, in all likeli- hood, be the first subjects of song ; and the earliest singers of these deeds — gesta — would appear in the chieftain's household.
Odyssey the aoihiyi or professional sin. The trovadores are generally authors ; the juglares are mere executants — singers, declaimers, mimes, or simple mountebanks.
Of these lowlier performers one type has been immortalised in M. But between trovadores and juglares it is not possible to draw a hard-and-fast line : their functions intermingled.
Some few trovadores anticipated Wagner by eight or nine centuries, composing their own music-drama on a lesser scale. In cases of special endowment, the composer of words and music delivered them to the audience.
Subdivisions abounded. There were the juglares or singing-actors, the remendadores or mimes, the cazurros or mutes with duties undefined, resembling those of the intelligent " super.
There were juglares de boca reciters and juglares de pMola musicians. The normal rule was that the juglar recited the trovadores verses ; but, as already said, an occasional trovador Alfonso Alvarez de Villasandino, at Seville, in the fifteenth century, is a case in point would declaim his own ballad.
In the juglares hands the original was cut or padded to suit the hearers' taste. He subordinated the verses to the music, and gave them maimed, or arabesqued with estribillos refrains , to fit a popular air.
The commonest arrangement was that the juglar de boca sang the trovador's words, the juglar de pifiola accompanying on some simple instrument, while the remendador gave the story in pantomime.
With the Greeks the minstrel attains at last I an important post in the chieftain's train. Seated on a high chair inlaid with silver, he entertains the guests, or guards the wife of Agamemnon, his patron and his friend.
When I have used pop music, the excitement in the room is palpable. Students are jumping up and down with glee. Not that they never jump up and down with glee for other music we do, but seriously, they get pretty excited.
My number one goal for my classroom is that it is joyful, so this is a pretty good reason to try it! So after thinking about how to include pop music in my lessons since my training didn't include it at all , I realized the reason it can be so hard to do is that pop music keeps changing.
The 1 hit that everyone loves in will surely not be 1 in , and in five years it may be somewhat obsolete. So this means we have to change our pop music lessons, at least every few years, so that they remain relevant.
Then, of course, there is the issue of appropriateness. SO many pop songs are just not appropriate. Maybe kids don't realize the true meaning of the song—as was so often the case with music I listened to growing up—but still, there are songs we just can't do, no matter how much the kids love them.
After considering the reasons why I wanted to include pop music more, and why creating lessons using pop music is tricky, I have come up with a few ideas over the last couple of years that have worked for me and my students.
I am truly at the beginning of this journey, so will blog more as more ideas come to me! In the lowlands, the two smallest nectarivorous species 10 g were an abundant understory species Glossophaga soricina , and an uncommon bat, that 60 used both strata G.
The large size g nectarivorous canopy species, Phyllostomus discolor, sometimes is included in the omnivore guild.
In the cloud forest, three of the four smallest species had no preference for strata but differed in abundance Hylonycteris underwoodi and Glossophaga spp.
The other two size classes were represented by two uncommon canopy species, L. The g class was represented only by one individual of P.
Niche matrix of guild-body mass for 52 species of bats recorded in cloud forest of Fortuna, Chiriquf, Panami with a combined mist netting and acoustic method.
The smallest 10 g species Vampyressa pusilla, Ectophylla macconnelli represented one of the less abundance size classes at both forests.
The g class had higher diversity of species 61 and genera among frugivore size classes at both sites. Numerically dominant were three understory abundant-common Carollia spp.
Other genera contain only one uncommon canopy species Uroderma bilobatum, Platyrrhinus helleri, and Vampyressa nymphaea.
Numerically dominant in the cloud forest were four small Artibeus spp. Next was Carollia with two of the three species that differed by strata and abundance and by Enchisthenes hartii, a common canopy species.
The other genera contain two uncommon canopy bats P. In the lowlands, the medium size g class included less abundant canopy bats, C.
In the cloud forest, two medium size abundant species differed by strata Sturnira spp. Both bat communities had only canopy species in the g and g class, and these species strongly and partially differed in abundance in the lowlands Artibeus spp.
Discussion By extending standardized understory and canopy sampling beyond the previous one-year single-community study Bonaccorso , Bonaccorso and Humphrey , 1 have firmly established that the diversity of bat communities varies spatially and temporally.
Taking its strength from long-term, rich samples of bats, and complemented with an acoustic inventory, this study represents one of the most detailed comparative descriptions of two tropical bat communities.
Therefore, I believe this study offers a 62 standard means for comparing species diversity among sites, and exploring general spatial and temporal patterns of bats in tropical forest communities.
Description of Tropical Bat Communities The search for patterns in community composition and structure usually has been the first step in community ecology studies because they lead in turn to the formulation of hypotheses about the causes of these patterns Begon et al.
Only with the kind of study shown here is it possible to sample bat communities and to compare their community attributes of composition and structure sensu Putz et al.
The addition of the acoustic method permits the identification of a component of the bat community aerial insectivores not easy sampled with mist nets Kalko et al.
The description of bat communities in terms of their composition e. Species richness and abundance are the first and simplest way to describe and compare bat communities.
The lowland forest and the cloud forest showed more similarities in species richness than in abundance. Bat communities from these forests had similar species richness by combined 51 vs 52 spp.
Comparison of bat families and subfamilies represented in these forests showed similar species richness; exceptions were Emballonuridae, Phyllostominae, and Glossophaginae.
Other studies have also reported that Emballonuridae and Phyllostominae decrease in species richness with elevation, but they did not show an increase with elevation for Glossophaginae Graham , Fleming a, Patterson et al.
Nevertheless, the lowland forest seems to have more uncommon species, whereas the cloud forest seems to have more rare species. The presence of more uncommon species is typical of lowland bat communities Kalko et al.
Total bat abundance was similar in the forests vs , but species abundance distribution and rank abundance were different.
This comparison revealed differences in the shape of these species abundance curves that previous studies of bat community had not detected.
The cloud forest bat community was more evenly distributed in species abundance than the lowland bat community, and when combined with species richness, the cloud forest bat community had higher species diversity than lowland bats.
These forests were more similar in their taxonomic Ce than in their functional CN species composition. Forest stratification in these sites had greater impact on species abundance than on species richness.
With the exception of a few species, bats used both strata in the two forests, which showed similarity in species richness by strata within and between forests.
Although more bats were captured in the canopy than in the understory in both forests, many more captures were made in the cloud forest canopy.
Other studies have shown a similar species pattern of strata use and a high proportion of species shared between strata Bonaccorso , Brosset and Charles-Dominique , Ascorra et al.
If only the understory had been sampled in my study, the cloud forest would have appeared to have low bat abundance and some species 64 would have been incorrectly categorized as uncommon-rare.
A comparison of species richness and evenness between strata in both forests showed differences in the species richness of lowland forest and cloud forest.
Although, both bat communities had more taxonomically than functionally similarity between strata, the differences were greater in the cloud forest.
Temporal variation in diversity within strata and between forests seems to be related to patterns of rainfall Chapter 2.
The annual variability in rainfall and possibly in food resources in both forests caused high monthly variability in species richness and abundance.
Both forests in showed high richness in total and single species than in other years, but unique species and abundance between forests differed in trends.
In the lowlands, unique species seem to decrease with time, whereas total bat abundance was the same every year; in the cloud forest unique species seem to remain constant, while abundance increased with years.
Differences in abundance trends between bat communities might result from differential changes in resident species abundance and in the number of non-resident species by year see Hubbell At particular sites some bat species may be common one year, and rare or difficult to observe in others.
Bat species richness and abundance in Neotropical lowlands tend to be highest during early rainy season, and lowest during dry and late rainy seasons Thomas , Bonaccorso , Stoner , this study.
However, in the cloud forest, species richness was similar in all three seasons, whereas abundance was highest during both rainy seasons Jun-Oct and lower during the dry season.
The differences in climate and plant diversity between sites Chapter 2 may be responsible, through their influence on the availability of food and roost resources, for the differences in seasonal diversity 65 patterns between these bat communities Kalko et al.
The lowland monthly variability in species richness and abundance between strata reflect the general pattern of use by bats Kalko and Handley , this study.
However, there was an opposite trend between the understory and canopy species richness that has not been previously reported: understory species increased from June-July, whereas canopy species simultaneously decreased.
Throughout the year both strata were used equally by individuals, which suggests that these strata may have similar resource availability.
This study indicates that sampling only in the understory will strongly bias the results of a bat diversity study. The classification of species from a community into meaningful groups, such as guilds, is a way to distinguish patterns in community Root , Simberloff and Dayan Bats have been classified into 10 guilds based on habitat, feeding mode, and diet Kalko , Schnitzler and Kalko This study showed the general pattern that the number of bat guilds decreases with elevation in the Neotropics Graham , Fleming a, Eisenberg , Patterson et al.
There was a decrease from the ten guilds found in lowland forests Kalko et al. At the well-sampled Monteverde cloud forest bat community in Costa Rica, the piscivore is the only missing guild and carnivorous and omnivorous bats are rare Timm and LaVal a.
In this study, piscivorous, omnivorous, and carnivorous bats are missing in the cloud forest. The absence or rarity of these guilds might result from the scarcity of foraging ground calm waters and prey piscivorous N.
Bat communities were similar in their species richness, taxonomic composition, and body mass distribution of guilds in spite of ecological e.
Neotropical bat communities are dominated in number of species by the background cluttered aerial insectivore and the frugivore guilds Kalko et al.
Because results from bat studies suggest that bat communities follow similar patterns in taxonomic richness, trophic categories, and body mass distribution, at least in forest ecosystems with appropriate resources available Fleming a , the question rises of how this high bat species diversity is maintained.
Maintenance of Tropical Bat Communities The question of how so many ecologically similar species can coexist, is one central topic in bat studies Findley , Kalko Niche differentiation is a prerequisite for a stable coexistence of similar species Volterra , Lotka and 67 under the premise that resources are a limiting factor, members of the same guild should differ in their niche requirements Begon et al.
Ecological separation of species resources occurs along food, habitat, and time dimensions Giller McNab was the first to use a two-dimensional food habit-body size niche matrix to analyze the structure of tropical bat communities.
He hypothesized that only one common species should occupy each cell in the matrix; however as in this study, it has been found that some cells contain more than one common species Fleming et al.
As McNab and others have suggested, information on factors such as diet, strata use, and temporal activity, are needed to understand how tropical bat communities are structured.
Tropical bats have shown differentiation according to body size, habitat use, foraging strategy, or temporal activity Bonaccorso , Bonaccorso and Humphrey , Kalko , Kalko et al.
For example, the coexistence of several species of aerial insectivorous bats in the same body mass class can be mediated through a behavioral segregation in foraging pattern Saunders and Barclay , Kalko , Kalko et al.
Lowland gleaning insectivore and omnivore species with similar body mass and abundance may use forest strata differentially e. The lowland and cloud forests have only one abundant small nectarivorous bat lowland G.
Glossophaga soricina has a lower basal metabolic rate and smaller body size than highland nectarivorous species McNab , , Soriano et al.
The largest member of this guild was a rare species P. Neotropical frugivorous bats, which show a positive correlation between their body size and the size of fruits that they consume Heithaus et al.
The genera Carollia and Sturnira are considered understory bats that feed mainly in shrubs of the Piperaceae and Solanaceae Fleming b, The Stenodermatinae except Sturnira are classified as canopy bats that feed mainly on fruits from Ficus Moraceae trees Bonaccorso , Handley et al.
Only lowland bats showed the general stratataxonomic segregation with the exception of S. Most cloud forest frugivores were canopy specialists or made use of both strata, the latter including Carollia and some small Artibeus.
The only understory specialist was the medium-sized highland species S. These plant-bat mutualistic associations influence the ecology of bats, and act as a mechanism that allows species coexistence Fleming ab, , Kalko et al.
There were few very small frugivorous bats in both forests. Lowland small-sized bats were differentiated by strata use in understory Carollia spp.
Among species of Carollia, the segregation in body size, diet, and habitat occurs at a fine scale Fleming The largest and smallest Carollia were abundant: C.
Sturnira lilium, which shows an overlap in diet and size with Carollia Fleming b, , Willig , differed in strata use from the similar in size and abundance C.
In the cloud forest, the abundant C. Carollia brevicauda is the dominant species over C. Low ambient temperatures seem not to be a limiting factor for these species because C.
Among five lowland, small canopy bats, only two Artibeus phaeotis and A. These ecologically similar Artibeus species may coexist through temporal or habitat differentiation see Bonaccorso and Humphrey , Kalko et al.
Among small, cloud forest canopy bats, A. Artibeus phaeotis, which used both strata, is at the margins of its altitudinal distribution at Fortuna cloud forest.
Besides vertical stratification, other ecological factors, such as food and roost availability, need to be considered in bat resource partitioning and competition Kalko et al.
Medium to very large lowland canopy bats were poorly represented in number of individuals; the exception was the superabundant A.
The reason for this is unknown, but the availability of their preferred fruit species or suitable roosts may have influenced their abundance Morrison , 70 Bonaccorso and Humphrey , Kalko et al.
Two cloud forest medium-sized species of Sturnira were similar in abundance but differentiated in strata use.
All largeto very large-sized bats were canopy species with similar abundance, but none was as abundant as the highland P. In this forest, maybe fruit and roost availability and climatic factors allowed these frugivorous species to coexist at similar abundance.
For some groups of bat species, niche segregation might occur at a more fine body size-resource scale, as had been demonstrated in Carollia spp.
Fleming , Thies A clear identification of how tropical bats partition their resources and the spatial and temporal variability in bat diversity shown here needs to be considered when the conservation actions and strategies toward the protection and management of bats and their forest habitats are developed.
In agreement with previous investigations Thomas , Bonaccorso and Humphrey , Kalko et al. It also confirms the utility of standardized, long-term sampling in diverse tropical bat communities, only by doing such sampling will it be possible to make comparisons among spatial and temporal components of diversity Kalko , My results reinforce the prevalence of variation in species richness and abundance along vertical, altitudinal, and temporal scales, accentuating the significance of considering tropical bat diversity in space and time.
My comparison of two bat communities revealed differences in the shapes of species abundance distributions from lowland and cloud forests that previous work on bat communities had not detected.
The differences in curve shapes suggest that these forests differ in the environmental factors that influence their bat communities see May , Stenseth , Ugland and Gray , Hubbell Finally, this study encourages 71 comparisons of tropical bat communities at other lowland and highland sites, and points to a means of advancing our understanding of how spatial and temporal factors may influence tropical bat diversity and in consequence how to conserve both bats and their habitats.
The multidimensional niche concept Hutchinson as a resource utilization spectrum, provides a mean to understand how species relate to one another, and enhance our interpretation of community organization Giller Similar species can separate their activities along three major categories of resource dimensions: food, habitat, and time Giller , Colinvaux Complex resource segregation is found in assemblages with many similar species Feinsinger , Emmons , Karr and Freemark , Brown and Kurzius , Roubik The guild concept sensu Root , as a group of species that exploit the same class of environmental resources in a similar way, provides a opportunity to compare activity patterns among similar species, and to answer the question of how similar species coexist Terborgh and Robinson , Kalko , Comparing guilds has been successful in the study of bat communities.
Early studies of the species-rich Neotropical bat communities revealed that niche space of similar-sized bats with similar food preferences is tightly packed, especially among frugivores Fleming et al.
Subsequently, more complete knowledge about resources 72 73 and habitat requirements of species has improved the descriptions of Neotropical bat guilds Bonaccorso , Kalko , Schnitzler and Kalko